The Indian government had had a ceasefire agreement with Myanmarese Naga rebel leader S S Khaplang since 2001. He heads a faction of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland or NSCN(K) which is active in at least three states in Northeast India. 
After years of stalemate, both sides thought it prudent to suspend operations and explore the possibility of a negotiated settlement. But even after 14 years, there was precious little that was achieved through talks except the annual ritual of the ceasefire extension.

On 27 March 2015, two senior representatives of NSCN(K) -- Wangtin Naga and P Tikhak --emerged from a meeting near Dimapur in Nagaland with a sense of unease. Their conversation with government officials was serious and it focused on the renewal of the ceasefire between the two sides. 

The duo were told in no uncertain terms about New Delhi's unhappiness over the conduct of their chief who had not only firmed up an alliance with separatist insurgent outfits from Assam and Manipur but also allowed them to set up camps and training facilities in the Naga-inhabited areas in Myanmar's Sagaing Division.

The delegates were trying to find a middle ground and they reiterated their commitment to peace and negotiated settlement. But Khaplang would not budge an inch and he responded with a statement reiterating his resolve to fight for the independence of India's Northeast and the Naga-inhabited areas in Myanmar. 

The Naga militant outfits — Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K) — had decided to abrogate the ongoing ceasefire agreement with the Government of India, leading to another split in the outfit. 

The developments became evident after two leaders of the outfit, Y Wangtin Naga and P Tikhak announced that they were going to form a new outfit. and the two representatives who apparently enjoyed a close rapport with the chief were soon expelled from the organization. 

This was the third instance when senior leaders based in Nagaland had parted ways from the chief following differences. Earlier, two leaders, general secretary, Kitovi Zhimoni; and commander-in-chief, Khole Konyak split and had formed the NSCN(GPRN) were expelled on the grounds of "anti-party activities."

"There were massacres in the aftermath of the Shillong Accord in 1975 and when the NSCN was divided in 1988. Will this incident engender another round of bloody clashes in Nagaland as has happened whenever outfits have split earlier or made an accord?"

For the uninitiated, insurgency in Nagaland began in 1947 when the Naga National Council (NNC) raised the banner of revolt and demanded independence. NNC was sidelined after the formation of the NSCN in 1980 which was also brought a section of Myanmarese Nagas headed by Khaplang into the organisation. But NSCN was divided eight years later into the Khaplang and Isak-Muivah factions. 

In 1997, ceasefire was declared between the government and the Isak-Muivah group and dialogue initiated for a negotiated settlement. Five years later, Khaplang followed suit by declaring cessation of hostilities with the government which led to an agreement. But unlike NSCN(IM), New Delhi has not engaged Khaplang in a dialogue since he is based in Myanmar. 

The separatist organization NSCN (IM) of Nagaland and the central government in New Delhi on Monday evening have signed a historical peace accord. The accord was signed between  both the parties at 7 RCR. PM, Narendra Modi, NSCN (IM) founder member, Isak-Muivah; BJP president, Amit Shah;  Union Home Minister, Raj Nath Singh and Defence Minister, Manohar Parikar were present during the signature of the accord. This faction since long was demanding ‘Greater Nagaland'.

PM expressed gratitude to the leaders of NSCN for the accord and said, 'Thanks'.  He added, ‘Illusion propaganda was spreaded there against the country’.

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